SARCOPENIA

A REALITY WHICH CAN CHANGE

Sarcopeny is a syndrome which defines itself by a progressive decrease of the muscle mass when ageing, which certain factors can accelerate.

During the ageing process, the physical composition of the human being is being considerably modified. The percentage of fat mass increases, whilst the thin mass decreases. In 1989 Irwin Rosenberg defined the sarcopeny as the progressive decrease of muscle mass linked with ageing. ” As a constant and about 1 % to 2 % a year beyond the age of 50 years “. Since 1989, the definition which was only quantitative, integrated the notion of decrease of the strength (10-15 % / year) as well as that of the modification of the muscular quality, which allows to integrate the functional consequences.
Finally, this process can be accelerated by multiple interdependent factors which participate in its development and progress such as:

  • Insufficient nutritional contributions and non adapted to the needs for an ageing bodyn
  • An insufficient or non-existent physical activity,2
  • A loss of units motrices3
  • The endocrine dysfunctions (Deficiency in anabolic hormones)4

FACTORS AGRAVANTS AND PREVENTION

Physical inactivity.

If sarcopeny is a multi-syndroms, physical inactivity is a factor which participates largely in its evolution.

A 2002 study shows that a twelve years ageing pulls a decrease of the strength delivery capacity of 24 % and an amyotrophy of 16 %. On the contrary, the physical activity regularly followed during only 12 weeks allows to prevent ageing by increasing by 15 % the strength capacity strength and 10 % the muscular mass.
With regard to this information we understand that the physical activity is one of the best ways to improve mobility and autonomy for seniors. Indeed, the loss of balance, the poor posture and difficulties to walk for seniors turns out to be a handicap of everyday life, its symptoms decrease for many their movements as well as their driving autonomy.

Food, Hormonal System and neuromuscular

Muscles are in constant restructuring. If the protein synthesis does not seem to decrease with ageing, proteins absorbed by food are clearly less well likened by body ageing, which causes a deficit of the amino acids necessary for the synthesis of muscular proteins.
Thus it is important to watch the quality of ingested proteins, they must be rich in acids aminees essential, amongst which leucine, isoleucine and valine, which stimulate after an effort the restructuring of muscular fibres. Proteins coming from whey are the richest sources and quickly digested.
Diverse studies showed that the contribution of acid mixtures aminés enriched in leucine improves muscular proteosynthesis for elderly. There is also a loss of the neuromuscular function. The reduction of mass and aged-related muscular strength is accompanied with a decrease number of driving units.

We observe mainly:

  • A reduction of number of fibres type II from 20 to 25 %,
  • Reduction of the number of satellite cells participating in the growth and muscular regeneration A reduction of about 50 % of the number of motoneurones alpha.
  • A change of the endocrine functions.
  • Decrease of anabolic hormones such as testosterone, growth hormone, DHEA.
  • Increase of cortisol rate.
  • Resistance in the usiline by weight gain.

To fight against sarcopeny, it is necessary to associate the physical activity with an adapted nutritional strategy:

Fight sarcopeny with nutrition:

  • By leucine supplementation at the time of meal which allows to increase muscular protein synthesis
  • A vitamin D supplementation will help in the reduction (from 19 to 23 %) of the number of falls due to muscular weakness
  • Have a food pulsed by protein supplementation for a better bioavailability of amino acids
  • A supplementation in Citruline who allows to protect muscle mass and improve the physical performances
  • Add Vitamins D supplement

Fight sarcopeny with physical activity:

  • 3 times a week during 12 weeks, increase strength and thickness of muscles
  • Particip also in maintaining nutritional balance
  • Allows to increase muscular adaptation as well as vital capacities
  • Endurance and strength will help to restore:
    • Agility
    • Coordination
    • Muscular Strength
    • Muscular Endurance
    • Promptitude
    • Capacity
    • Fitness
    • Balance

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* SARCOPENIA: ‘Flesh’ Sarco and Panigrahi which comes from the ancient Greek πενία ” poverty. ”
Sources:
1: Corpus of Geriatrics, http://www.chups.jussieu.fr/polys/geriatrie/tome1/05_nutrition.pdf
2: chups.jussieu.fr/polys/dus/…/gallouviellissementaps.pdf
3: Vandervoort AA. “Aging of the human neuromuscular system. Muscle Nerve 2002 Jan; 25 (1).
4: Tenover JL. “Testosterone and the aging male” J. Androl. 1997 Apr; 18. Perrini S, Laviola L, Carreira MC, Cignarelli A, Natalicchio A, Gerard F. “The GH/IGF1 axis and signaling pathways in the muscle and bone: mechanisms underlying age-related skeletal muscle wasting and osteoporosis” J. Endocrinol. 2010 June; 205 (3): 201 – 10.

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